41 artists, 639 songs
In the late 1950s, Ornette Coleman's "The Shape of Jazz to Come" sparked the free jazz rebellion against more structured styles of jazz with its spontaneous improvisations and loose arrangements. Coleman's 1961 album Free Jazz took his creative ideals to the extreme, with all of the band members improvising independently of each other without the framework of chord progressions or a melodic, harmonic or rhythmic center. Similarly, Avant Garde, or Modern Jazz relies on freedom of improvisation yet it retains some elements of composition. Modern Jazz players like John Coltrane and the Art Ensemble of Chicago experimented with dissonant and cacophonous tones in unrestrained expressions of musical creativity.